At a lower fertility rate, future growth is much harder to achieve and several countries face future aging shocks.The consequences of both too many and too few babies show up in dependency ratios – the young and old dependent on those of working age. curve up the western edge of Europe and define the physical landscape of Scandinavia (Norway, Sweden, Denmark), Finland, Iceland, Scotland, Ireland, the Brittany region of France, Spain, Portugal … Its main peninsulas are the Iberian, Italian, Crimean and Balkan, located in southern Europe, and the Scandinavian and Jutland, located in northern Europe. Europe can be divided into four major physical regions, running from north to south: Western Uplands, North European Plain, Central Uplands and Alpine Mountains. western uplands: geologically older, lower, more stable than Alpines … Europe is a peninsula of the Eurasian supercontinent. peninsula of peninsulas: A peninsula is a piece of land surrounded by water on three sides.
This area is often called a shatter-belt because the once communist country split into five separate countries. central uplands: heart of Europe, hills, low plateaus, raw materials (iron, coal, other resources for manufacturing) … allowed for early communication, travel, agricultural development, avenue for migration c.Rome: law, engineering, infrastructure (city structure, roads and aqueducts), establishment and spread of Christianity, areal functional specialization 2.The Roman Empire’s cultural influence remains to this day: French, Spanish, Romanian and modern Italian derived from Latin, Roman fondness for wine brought vineyards to France, laid the cornerstones of many of today's modern cities (such as Paris), invested in the infrastructure that was vital for their longevity 3.